The wind is the movement of air, and although it is invisible, we can still feel it. Wind arises from pressure differences (due to temperature fluctuations) in the earth’s atmosphere. When air from high-pressure areas moves towards low-pressure areas, wind occurs. Hence, the higher the pressure differences between the two areas, the stronger the winds. There are different types of global wind created by temperature differences and the spin of our planet. Below are the various types of wind that take part in the earth’s climate.
1- Easterly Prevailing Winds (Trade Winds)
These are the winds blown towards the easterly surface of Equator (near the south-most Northern Hemisphere & north-most Southern Hemisphere of Equator) towards from both Horse Latitudes. Those winds blow from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere and from the southeast in the Southern Hemisphere.
2- Westerly Prevailing Winds
These types of winds blow from the west towards the east in the middle latitudes (latitudes between 30 and 60 degrees in Northern and Southern Hemispheres). They originate from the high-pressure areas in the Horse Latitudes and move towards the North & South Poles and possibly drives to extratropical Cyclones (which could be the type of weather between tropical rain to a heavy thunderstorm or even a tornado). The wind direction is from the southwest in the Northern Hemisphere and from the northwest in the Southern Hemisphere.
3- Polar Easterlies
Those types of wind are dry and cold and are blown around the Polar Easterly Wind Belt zone, which are the high-pressure areas of both North and South Poles. Approximate locations of this Belt/Zone are from 60 degrees North & South Latitudes until to North & South Poles, respectively. The wind direction of Polar Easterlies is towards Southwest from Northeast and towards Northwest from Southeast at Northern and Southern Polar Easterly Wind Belts, respectively.
4- Periodic Winds (Monsoon Winds, Sea Breeze & Land Breeze)
Monsoon Wind is of a Wind System that reverses its wind direction from one monsoon to the other. Winds are blown from the southwest during the Summer Monsoon, and Winter Monsoon‘s winds are blown from the northeast. The Summer Monsoon can include several days of heavy rainfall, and the Winter Monsoon is usually dry and gently blown. Sea Breezes are winds blown due to the differences in atmospheric air pressure and temperature at land. Sea Breezes usually occur during the day when the ocean is cold, and the land is hot. During Sea Breezes, the wind is blown from massive areas of water (ocean, sea, or lake) towards a land (or mountain/s). The natural occurrence of Sea Breeze is during the day because when the sun rises, the land absorbs solar radiation far more quickly than water. Land breezes are the reverse effects of Sea breezes. After sunset, the land cools its temperature more quickly than water, so the Sea Breezes disappear, and the wind direction changes towards the ocean (sea or lake) from the land.
5- Local Winds
The Local Winds is the type of winds that are caused by the difference in temperature & pressure at the given location.
The wind shapes our environment, climate, and transports heat, moisture, pollutants, and dust over thousands of miles around the globe.